Africa Study

HelioHydroElectric Potential Prefeasibility Study

AFRICA

Prepared by Martin Nix B.U.S, A.A.S Seattle, WA, June, 2015

ABSTRACT: HelioHydroElectric is a little known solar engineering technology, using salt/sea water and solar power to create evaporation ponds for artificial rain in deserts. Africa has large HelioHydroElectric resources. Located in the African Continent are dry endorheic salt lakes. These can be flooded with salt/sea water to create clouds from evaporation. The additional rainfall would increase vegetation, thus removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. HelioHydroElectric technology is the only technology that can actually remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The additional rainfall in Africa it will increase agriculture and provide new living space. Not only can salt/sea water be used, but also underground alkali aquifer water can be used to flood these dry salt lakes. It is proposed that wind and solar power be used, along with energy conservation, for water pumping. Development of HelioHydroElectric has the potential of solving the drought problem in Africa. Various sites were graphed for potential. Development of a new water source for Africa will help in economic development of the continent. It is hoped this paper will spur conversations and funding for a full feasibility study.

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INTRODUCTION: Proposed is the pumping of salt/seawater inland to the Continent for flooding of existing dry salt lakes to create clouds, and thus artificial rain. This technology, known as HelioHydroElectric technology, will create more vegetation in the desert, region and in mountains, thus reversing Global Warming. It will stimulate the economy of Africa. Solar pumping technology is now very well developed. This Prefeasibility study is mostly to study the potential for construction of such a project. It is hoped that funding for a complete Feasibility study can be located so as to determine the environmental impact, climate impact, and economic impact along with construction plans and cost.

Israel, Jordan and Palestine are presently constructing the Red to Dead Sea project, so as to add additional moisture to the region. Egypt has under study the Qattara Depression project. This is being reviewed elsewhere. Iran and Pakistan are considering HelioHydroElectric projects. Various sites were graphed for potential future study. In many cases data for the various sites was hard to obtain, however, these sites were estimated. It does give a general magnitude of order of the potential.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

 

ALGERIA

Location Square Mile Area Evaporation Rate/Day Evaporation Rate/Second Power (Megawatts)

Chott Ech Chergui

772

215,221,248

2,490

710

Chott Hodna

293

80,847,360

945

103

Ouargla Dry Lakes

400

111,513,600

1,290

78

ErglGuidi Dry Lakes

100

27,878,400

322

54

Qued

100

27,878,400

322

54

Oued Rherts

100

27,878,400

322

54

Oued Soura

100

27,878,400

322

54

Salinas DArzew

100

27,878,400

322

54

Sebkhade Onan

100

27,878,400

322

54

Zahrez Rharbi

300

83,635,200

968

968

Zahrez Chergui

100

27,878,400

322

54

Misc.Sites

1,000

278,784,000

3,226

273

Total:

2,765

965,150,208 cu/ft/day

11,173 cu/ft/s

2,564 Megawatts

Algeria (Below Sea Level)

Location Square Mile Area Evaporation Rate/Day Evaporation Rate/Second Power (Megawatts)

Chott Melvhir

2,600

724,838,400

8,389

-92

Sebkha Azzel Matti

100

27,878,400

322

-2

Tidikelt

100

27,878,400

322

-2

2,800 780,595,200 cu/ft/day 9,033 cu/ft/s -96 Megawatts

9

TUNISIA

Location Square Mile Area Evaporation Rate/Day Evaporation Rate/Second Power (Megawatts)

Chott Dierd 2,296

640,088,064

7,408

18(MW)

Chott Gharsa 1,000

278,784,000

3,226

8

3,296 918,872,064 10,634 26 Megawatts

10

LIBYA

Location

Square Miles

Evaporation/Day Evaporation/Second

Power (Megawatts)

Misc.Sites

1,000

278,784,000 3,226

546 (MW)

LIBYA (Below Sea Level)

Location Square Miles Evaporation/Day Evaporation/Second Power (Megawatts)

Sebkhet Te-N-Dghaneda

100

27,878,400

322

-27(MW)

Sabkhet Ghuzhauyyil

100

27,878,400

322

-41

200

55,756,800

644

-68 Megawatts

11MALI

Location

Square Miles

Evaporation Rate/Day

Evaporation Rate/Second

Power (Megawatts)

Misc.Sites

1,000

278,784,000

3,226

546 (MW)

MAURITANIA

Location

Square Miles

Evaporation Rate/Day

Evaporation Rate/Second

Power (Megawatts)

Misc.Sites

1,000

278,784,000

3,226

546 (MW)

WESTERN SAHARA

Location

Square Miles

Evaporation Rate/Day

Evaporation Rate/Second

Power (Megawatts)

Misc.Sites

1,000

278,784,000

3,226

546 (MW)

WESTERN SAHARA (Below Sea Level)

Location Square Miles Evaporation Rate/Day Evaporation Rate/Second Power (Megawatts) Sebkhat Tan 100 27,878,400 322 -5(MW)

MOROCCO

Location Square Miles

Evaporation Rate/Day

Evaporation Rate/Second

Power (Megawatts)

Misc.Sites 1,000

278,784,000

3,226

546 (MW)

Note: Data difficult to come by. Estimated.

12 13

BOTSWANA

Location Square Miles Evaporation Rate/Day Evaporation Rate/Second Power (Megawatts) Makgadikgadi Pans 6,200 1,728,460,000 20,005 4,944

NAMBIA

Location Square Miles Evaporation Rate/Day Evaporation Rate/Second Power (Megawatts) Etosha Pan 1,840 512,962,560 5,937 1,507

SOUTH AFRICA

Location Square Miles Evaporation Rate/Day Evaporation Rate/Second Power (Megawatts)

Hakskeen Pan

1,000

278,784,000

3,226

546

Verneak Pan

300

83,635,200

968

163

Sakrivier

100

27,878,400

322

54

Grootviver

1,000

278,784,000

3,226

546

Dagab se Lagle

100

27,878,400

322

54

2,500

696,960,200

8,064

1,363

14

NIGER

Location

Square Miles

Evaporation Rate/Day

Evaporation Rate/Second

Power (Megawatts)

Misc.Sites

1,000

278,784,000

3,226

546 (MW)

CAMEROON

Location

Square Miles

Evaporation Rate/Day

Evaporation Rate/Second

Power (Megawatts)

Misc.Sites

1,000

278,784,000

3,226

546 (MW)

 

15

CHAD

Location Square Miles Evaporation Rate/Day

Evaporation Rate/Second

Power (Megawatts)

Lake Chad 1,000 278,784,000

3,226

246 (MW)

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ANCIENT LAKE CHAD***

Location Square Miles Evaporation Rate/Day

Evaporation Rate/Second

Power (Megawatts)

Ancient Chad 940,000 262,056,960,000

3,033,060

256,719 (MW)

*** In ancient times, there was a giant lake in the middle of Africa. Done for reference of the maximum potential.

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16NIGER

Location Square Miles Evaporation Rate/Day Evaporation Rate/Second Power (Megawatts) Misc.Sites 1,000 278,784,000 3,226 546 (MW)

17

ETHIOPIA (Below Sea Level)

Location Square Miles Evaporation Rate/Day Evaporation Rate/Second Power (Megawatts) AFAR Region 460 128,240,640 1,484 -51

ETHIOPA

Location

Square Miles

Evaporation Rate/Day

Evaporation Rate/Second

Power (Megawatts)

Misc.Sites

1,000

278,784,000

3,226

546 (MW)

Chamo

213

59,380,492

687

235

Zway

187

21,326,080

246

273

Shala

127

35,405,680

409

176

Langano

97

27,042,048

312

137

Abijatia

79

22,023,936

254

110

Awasa

50

13,939,200

161

68

1,753

457,901,436

5,295

1,545

ERITHEA

Location

Square Miles

Evaporation Rate/Day Evaporation Rate/Second

Power (Megawatts)

Misc.Sites

1,000

278,784,000 3,226

546 (MW)

SPAIN

Location

Square Miles

Evaporation Rate/Day Evaporation Rate/Second

Power (Megawatts)

Misc.Sites

1,000

278,784,000 3,226

546 (MW)

KENYA

Location

Square Miles

Evaporation Rate/Day

Evaporation Rate/Second

Power (Megawatts)

Turkana

2,473

689,432,830

7,979

243(MW)

Baringo

80

22,302,720

258

69

Bogoria

60

16,727,040

193

53

Nakura

17

4,739,328

54

26

Elmenteita

10

2,787,840

32

14

Naivasha

61

17,005,824

196

102

Magdi

38

10,543,792

122

51

Natron

350

97,574,400

1,129

191

3,089

861,113,774

9,963

749

DJIBOUTI (Below Sea Level)

Location

Square Miles

Evaporation Rate/Day

Evaporation Rate/Second

Power (Megawatts)

Lake Assal

2,050

571,507,200

6,614

-210(MW)

SUDAN

Location

Square Miles

Evaporation Rate/Day

Evaporation Rate/Second

Power (Megawatts)

Khorodeb

200

55,756,800

645

109 (MW)

Misc.Sites

1,000

278,784,000

3,226

546

1,200

334,540,800

3,871

655

SOUTH SUDAN

Location

Square Miles

Evaporation Rate/Day Evaporation Rate/Second

Power (Megawatts)

Misc.Sites

1,000

278,784,000 3,226

546

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SUMMARY

***********************************************************************************

AFRICA (Below Sea Level)

Location

Square Miles

Evaporation Rate/Day Evaporation Rate/Second

Power (Megawatts)

Africa

5,600

1,563,978,240 18,097

-432

AFRICA (Above Sea Level)

Location

Square Miles

Evaporation Rate/Day Evaporation Rate/Second

Power (Megawatts)

Africa

32,803

9,849,247,442 113,976

32,803

19,714

AFRICA (Above and Below Sea Level)

Location

Square Miles

Evaporation Rate/Day Evaporation Rate/Second

Power (Megawatts)

TOTAL:

38,403

11,413,225,680* 132,073*

32,803-432=32,371**

*Assumes 100% efficiency.

** Assumes 1% evaporation rate per day per surface area.

SOMALIA: Used in Ancient Somalia, brick pyramids were built to condense water from the atmosphere,thus creating fresh water for garden sand vegetation. These pyramid scan again be built throughout desert coastal regions,to condense fresh water from the atmosphere.The cool bricks remove water from the hot air,much like condensation on a cold glass of ice water.This is a lost ancient technology.

PyramidHelioHydro

 

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